BMJ, 337 , pp. a2227, 2008, ISSN: 1756-1833.
OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence and extent of lying on the floor for a long time after being unable to get up from a fall among people aged over 90; to explore their use of call alarm systems in these circumstances.
DESIGN: 1 year follow-up of participants in a prospective cohort study of ageing, using fall calendars, phone calls, and visits.
SETTING: Participantstextquoteright usual place of residence (own homes or care homes), mostly in Cambridge.
PARTICIPANTS: 90 women and 20 men aged over 90 (n=110), surviving participants of the Cambridge City over-75s Cohort, a population based sample.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Inability to get up without help, lying on floor for a long time after falling, associated factors; availability and use of call alarm systems; participantstextquoteright views on using call alarms to summon help if needed after falling.
RESULTS: In one yeartextquoterights intensive follow-up, 54% (144/265) of fall reports described the participant as being found on the floor and 82% (217/265) of falls occurred when the person was alone. Of the 60% who fell, 80% (53/66) were unable to get up after at least one fall and 30% (20/66) had lain on the floor for an hour or more. Difficulty in getting up was consistently associated with age, reported mobility, and severe cognitive impairment. Cognition was the only characteristic that predicted lying on the floor for a long time. Lying on the floor for a long time was strongly associated with serious injuries, admission to hospital, and subsequent moves into long term care. Call alarms were widely available but were not used in most cases of falls that led to lying on the floor for a long time. Comments from older people and carers showed the complexity of issues around the use of call alarms, including perceptions of irrelevance, concerns about independence, and practical difficulties.
CONCLUSIONS: Lying on the floor for a long time after falling is more common among the "oldest old" than previously thought and is associated with serious consequences. Factors indicating higher risk and comments from participants suggest practical implications. People need training in strategies to get up from the floor. Work is needed on access and activation issues for design of call alarms and information for their effective use. Care providers need better understanding of the perceptions of older people to provide acceptable support services.